The Arch of Hadrian is a monumental gate, somewhat reminiscent of the famous Triumphal Arch in Rome. This building is located in the city of Athens on Amalis Avenue.
The arch was built in 131 AD in honor of the Roman emperor Hadrian on the ancient road that led from the center of Athens, and more specifically, its oldest district of Plaka, to the complex of buildings in the eastern part of the city, among which was the Temple of Olympian Zeus (Olympian). It is not known who exactly ordered the arch, and who was engaged in construction and design, although, most likely, these were citizens of Athens.
On the wall in the center above the ceiling two inscriptions are carved on both sides, calling both Theseus and Hadrian the founders of Athens. From the side of the acropolis, the inscription reads “This is Athens, the ancient city of Theseus”. From the side of Olympion, the inscription indicates that "This is the city of Hadrian, and not of Theseus." Researchers believe that the arch divided the city into an old and new part. There is also a second version, according to which, the inscription from the side of the new city testifies to the special role of the Roman emperor in the life and development of Athens, for which grateful citizens decided to perpetuate the memory of him. The new part of the city began to be called Adrianapolis.
The height of the arch is 18 m, width 13.5, and depth 2.3 m. It was built from white pentelicon marble, which was used in the construction of many Athenian buildings, for example, the Parthenon and the Panathinaikos stadium. Although it should be noted that for the arch was used marble of lower quality, with various impurities. In this case, the arch was carved from solid marble, without the use of cement and other building mixtures.