Calanque is one of the main attractions of Provence, with their magnificent nature and incredible beauty landscapes, which are called Provencal fjords. They cut the coast of France from Marseille to Cassis and La Ciotat. There are also small calanques near Saint-Raphael, but in terms of scale they have little comparison with those of Marseille (but the rocks are not gray, as in Marseille, but red).
Calanques are limestone cliffs with a height of over 400 meters, formed about 120 million years ago. Sea level gradually decreased, forming picturesque miniature fjords, reminiscent of an ancient valley flooded by the sea to a height of over 120 meters from the last glacier. These limestone deposits allowed people to use this natural material for construction and decoration: Bestouan and Port-Miou cartiers stone was also used to build many Mediterranean ports and main buildings in Marseille: the Prefecture, the Court, the Stock Exchange and the main cathedral.
An array of calanques also plays a huge role in the supply of fresh water, forming an important circulation of groundwater along the coast. It is necessary to allocate the underground sources of Port Miou and Bestouan, which emit fresh water to the surface, sufficient for the entire population of the region.