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The Obelisk of Theodosius - the ancient Egyptian obelisk of Pharaoh Thutmosis III. Best of all preserved from the obelisks brought to Constantinople and the only one brought directly from Egypt. The second preserved obelisk, from Egyptian porphyry, badly damaged, is located in the courtyard of the Istanbul Archaeological Museum. It is a tetrahedral monolith of pink Aswan granite, at the base of which lies a square, and the part narrowing towards the apex ends with a regular tetrahedral pyramid. All four sides of the obelisk are covered with inscriptions from Egyptian hieroglyphs, on the upper fragment there is a figure of Pharaoh Thutmose, holding hands with the Egyptian god Amon-Ra. Originally it was located in the southern part of the Great Temple of Atum-Ra-Amon, Thebes, near the seventh pylon, where it was installed in 1460 BC. e. Dedicated to the anniversary in honor of the thirtieth anniversary of the reign of Pharaoh Thutmose III (architect Puemra). It had an initial height of 37.77 meters and a weight of about 542.94 tons. The dedication inscription mentions the victorious campaign of Pharaoh in Mesopotamia. By order of the emperor Theodosius the Great, the obelisk was brought to Constantinople: at first it was tilted to an embankment and, dragged to the bank of the Nile, was loaded onto a barge; then, having floated to Alexandria, they were overloaded to a special ship (navis lapidariae). During transportation, a fragile granite monolith burst into two parts. The upper part, with a height of 19.59 m and a mass of about 281.6 tons, was installed on bronze pillars and a marble pedestal with the help of a special crane (geran). After 395 AD e. the obelisk was converted into a fountain. The water pipe crashed into the right facade of the pedestal, and the conclusions were made in 4 vessels on bronze supports.
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